(1) The State Government shall by notification in the Official Gazette constitute for every district, one or more Child Welfare Committees for exercising the powers and to discharge the duties conferred on such Committees in relation to children in need of care and protection under this Act and ensure that induction training and sensitization of all members of the committee is provided within two months from the date of notification.
(2) The Committee shall consist of a Chairperson, and four other members as the State Government may think fit to appoint, of whom at-least one shall be a woman and another, an expert on the matters concerning children.
(3) The District Child Protection Unit shall provide a Secretary and other staff that may be required for secretarial support to the Committee for its effective functioning.
(4) No person shall be appointed as a member of the Committee unless such person has been actively involved in health, education or welfare activities pertaining to children for atleast seven years or is a practicing professional with a degree in child psychology or psychiatry or law or social work or sociology or human development.
(5) No person shall be appointed as a member unless he possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed.
(6) No person shall be appointed for a period of more than three years as a member of the Committee.
(7) The appointment of any member of the Committee shall be terminated by the State Government after making an inquiry, if—
(i) he has been found guilty of misuse of power vested on him under this Act;
(ii) he has been convicted of an offence involving moral turpitude and such conviction has not been reversed or he has not been granted full pardon in respect of such offence;
(iii) he fails to attend the proceedings of the Committee consecutively for three months without any valid reason or he fails to attend less than three-fourths of the sittings in a year.
(8) The District Magistrate shall conduct a quarterly review of the functioning of the Committee.
(9) The Committee shall function as a Bench and shall have the powers conferred by the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 on a Metropolitan Magistrate or, as the case may be, a Judicial Magistrate of First Class.
(10) The District Magistrate shall be the grievances redressal authority for the Child Welfare Committee and anyone connected with the child, may file a petition before the District Magistrate, who shall consider and pass appropriate orders.
(1) The Committee shall meet at least twenty days in a month and shall observe such rules and procedures with regard to the transaction of business at its meetings, as may be prescribed.
(2) A visit to an existing child care institution by the Committee, to check its functioning and well being of children shall be considered as a sitting of the Committee.
(3) A child in need of care and protection may be produced before an individual member of the Committee for being placed in a Children’s Home or fit person when the Committee is not in session.
(4) In the event of any difference of opinion among the members of the Committee at the time of taking any decision, the opinion of the majority shall prevail but where there is no such majority, the opinion of the Chairperson shall prevail.
(5) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Committee may act, notwithstanding the absence of any member of the Committee, and no order made by the Committee shall be invalid by reason only of the absence of any member during any stage of the proceeding:
Provided that there shall be at least three members present at the time of final disposal of the case.
(1) The Committee shall have the authority to dispose of cases for the care, protection, treatment, development and rehabilitation of children in need of care and protection, as well as to provide for their basic needs and protection.
(2) Where a Committee has been constituted for any area, such Committee shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, but save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, have the power to deal exclusively with all proceedings under this Act relating to children in need of care and protection.
The functions and responsibilities of the Committee shall include—
(i) taking cognizance of and receiving the children produced before it;
(ii) conducting inquiry on all issues relating to and affecting the safety and well- being of the children under this Act;
(iii) directing the Child Welfare Officers or probation officers or District Child Protection Unit or non-governmental organizations to conduct social investigation and submit a report before the Committee;
(iv) conducting inquiry for declaring fit persons for care of children in need of care and protection;
(v) directing placement of a child in foster care;
(vi) ensuring care, protection, appropriate rehabilitation or restoration of children in need of care and protection, based on the child’s individual care plan and passing necessary directions to parents or guardians or fit persons or children’s homes or fit facility in this regard;
(vii) selecting registered institution for placement of each child requiring institutional support, based on the child’s age, gender, disability and needs and keeping in mind the available capacity of the institution;
(viii) conducting at least two inspection visits per month of residential facilities for children in need of care and protection and recommending action for improvement in quality of services to the District Child Protection Unit and the State Government;
(ix) certifying the execution of the surrender deed by the parents and ensuring that they are given time to reconsider their decision as well as making all efforts to keep the family together;
(x) ensuring that all efforts are made for restoration of abandoned or lost children to their families following due process, as may be prescribed;
(xi) declaration of orphan, abandoned and surrendered child as legally free for adoption after due inquiry;
(xii) taking suo motu cognizance of cases and reaching out to children in need of care and protection, who are not produced before the Committee, provided that such decision is taken by at least three members;
(xiii) taking action for rehabilitation of sexually abused children who are reported as children in need of care and protection to the Committee by Special Juvenile Police Unit or local police, as the case may be, under the Protection of Children from Sexual OffencesAct,2012;
(xiv) dealing with cases referred by the Board under sub-section (2) of section 17;
(xv) co-ordinate with the police, labour department and other agencies involved in the care and protection of children with support of the District Child Protection Unit or the State Government;
(xvi) in case of a complaint of abuse of a child in any child care institution, the Committee shall conduct an inquiry and give directions to the police or the District Child Protection Unit or labour department or childline services, as the case may be;
(xvii) accessing appropriate legal services for children;
(xviii) such other functions and responsibilities, as may be prescribed.
|Name of the Person||Designation||Official Address||Mobile Number||Email Id|
|Vimla Hembrom||Member||" "||9263846887||-------|
|Jyotsana Tirkey||Member||" "||9199347525||-------|
India has 430 million children (0-18), largest population of children in the world. While undoubtedly this is an opportunity for the country there is also a need to ensure that these children grow up healthy both in terms of physical health as well as mental health and have sufficient opportunities to contribute to the growth of country. As per the National Crime Records Bureau, a total of 48,338 child rape cases were recorded between 2001 and 2011 with an increase of 336% in child rape cases from 2001 (2,113 cases) to 2011 (7,112 cases). Even these figures are likely to be indicative since a majority of child rapes are not reported to the police.
In such environment undoubtedly children have become more vulnerable, however there is increasing concern about children who do not have any family support. One estimate puts around 20 million such children in the country.
This blog looks at the existing legal framework to cater to such children in Child Care Institutions. There are several pieces of legislation however Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000 (to be referred to as JJ Act) is the mainstay legislation. JJ Act requires that each child care institution which houses children must be registered under the Act. Main purpose of this registration is to ensure minimum standards of these institutions and regularly monitor their activities. While there is another Act on statute book, The Orphanages and Other Charitable Home (Supervision ∧ Control) Act 1960 , it does not seem to be so effective as its monitoring agency “Board of Control” is at the State level, while under JJ Act CWCs have been established at each district level. Further JJ Act is far more comprehensive covering both Child Care Institutions as well as children in conflict of law.
Problem as applicable to most legal instruments in India, is their implementation. It is reported that most Child Care Institutions are not registered. Often there are bureaucratic delays in registration of these Children Homes. CWCs do not visit and monitor these institutions as required. Sexual abuses against children in many of these homes have been reported (see Human Rights Watch Report titled, Breaking the Silence : Child Sexual Abuse in India).
Last year Parliament has enacted an Act to protect children from sexual abuse ‘Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012’. While the Act has codified several sexual abuses and now it is possible for easier prosecution however implementation of the Act depends upon setting up of the Special Courts as required under the Act, without this only thing that Police can do is file a charge sheet, but cannot prosecute. There has been some criticism too of the Act, stating that now a person marrying a minor could face charges of rape and kidnap.
Near:Baal kunj Chaibasa
CHAYA BALIKA GRIH run by SRIJAN MAHILA VIKAS MANCH
Near:Kasturba gandhi balika vidyalay Chaibasa
Sponsorship-(1) The sponsorship programme may provide supplementary support to families, to children’s homes and to special homes to meet medical, nutritional, educational and other needs of the children with a view to improving their quality of life.
(2) The State Government may make rules for the purpose of carrying out various scheme of sponsorship of children, such as individual to individual sponsorship, group sponsorship or community sponsorship.
Foster Care-(1) The foster care may be used for temporary placement of those infants who are ultimately to be given for adoption.
(2) in foster care, the child may be placed in another family for a short or extended period of time, depending upon the circumstances where the child’s own parent usually visits regularly and eventually after the rehabilitation, where the children may return to their own homes.
(3) The State Committee may make rules for the purpose of carrying out the scheme of foster care programme of children.
Adoption- (1) Adoption shall be resorted to for ensuring right to family for the orphan, abandoned and surrendered children, as per the provisions of this Act, the rules made thereunder and the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(2) Adoption of a child from a relative by another relative, irrespective of their religion, can be made as per the provisions of this Act and the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(3) Nothing in this Act shall apply to the adoption of children made under the provisions of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956.
(4) All inter-country adoptions shall be done only as per the provisions of this Act and the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(5) Any person, who takes or sends a child to a foreign country or takes part in any arrangement for transferring the care and custody of a child to another person in a foreign country without a valid order from the Court, shall be punishable as per the provisions of section 80.
(1) The prospective adoptive parents shall be physically fit, financially sound, mentally alert and highly motivated to adopt a child for providing a good upbringing to him.
(2) In case of a couple, the consent of both the spouses for the adoption shall be required.
(3) A single or divorced person can also adopt, subject to fulfilment of the criteria and in accordance with the provisions of adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(4) A single male is not eligible to adopt a girl child.
(5) Any other criteria that may be specified in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(1) Indian prospective adoptive parents living in India, irrespective of their religion, if interested to adopt an orphan or abandoned or surrendered child, may apply for the same to a Specialised Adoption Agency, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(2) The Specialised Adoption Agency shall prepare the home study report of the prospective adoptive parents and upon finding them eligible, will refer a child declared legally free for adoption to them along with the child study report and medical report of the child, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(3) On the receipt of the acceptance of the child from the prospective adoptive parents along with the child study report and medical report of the child signed by such parents, the Specialised Adoption Agency shall give the child in pre-adoption foster care and file an application in the court for obtaining the adoption order, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(4) On the receipt of a certified copy of the court order, the Specialised Adoption Agency shall send immediately the same to the prospective adoptive parents.
(5) The progress and wellbeing of the child in the adoptive family shall be followed up and ascertained in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(1) If an orphan or abandoned or surrendered child could not be placed with an Indian or non-resident Indian prospective adoptive parent despite the joint effort of the Specialised Adoption Agency and State Agency within sixty days from the date the child has been declared legally free for adoption, such child shall be free for inter-country adoption:
Provided that children with physical and mental disability, siblings and children above five years of age may be given preference over other children for such inter-country adoption, in accordance with the adoption regulations, as may be framed by the Authority.
(2) An eligible non-resident Indian or overseas citizen of India or persons of Indian origin shall be given priority in inter-country adoption of Indian children.
(3) A non-resident Indian or overseas citizen of India, or person of Indian origin or a foreigner, who are prospective adoptive parents living abroad, irrespective of their religion, if interested to adopt an orphan or abandoned or surrendered child from India, may apply for the same to an authorized foreign adoption agency, or Central Authority or a concerned Government department in their country of habitual residence, as the case may be, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(4) The authorized foreign adoption agency, or Central Authority, or a concerned Government department, as the case may be, shall prepare the home study report of such prospective adoptive parents and upon finding them eligible, will sponsor their application to Authority for adoption of a child from India, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(5) On the receipt of the application of such prospective adoptive parents, the Authority shall examine and if it finds the applicants suitable, then, it will refer the application to one of the Specialized Adoption Agencies, where children legally free for adoption are available.
(6) The Specialized Adoption Agency will match a child with such prospective adoptive parents and send the child study report and medical report of the child to such parents, who in turn may accept the child and return the child study and medical report duly signed by them to the said agency.
(7) On receipt of the acceptance of the child from the prospective adoptive parents, the Specialized Adoption Agency shall file an application in the court for obtaining the adoption order, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(8) On the receipt of a certified copy of the court order, the specialised adoption agency shall send immediately the same to Authority, State Agency and to the prospective adoptive parents, and obtain a passport for the child.
(9) The Authority shall intimate about the adoption to the immigration authorities of India and the receiving country of the child.
(10) The prospective adoptive parents shall receive the child in person from the specialized adoption agency as soon as the passport and visa are issued to the child.
(11) The authorized foreign adoption agency, or Central Authority, or the concerned Government department, as the case may be, shall ensure the submission of progress reports about the child in the adoptive family and will be responsible for making alternative arrangement in the case of any disruption, in consultation with Authority and concerned Indian diplomatic mission, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(12) A foreigner or a person of Indian origin or an overseas citizen of India, who has habitual residence in India, if interested to adopt a child from India, may apply to Authority for the same along with a no objection certificate from the diplomatic mission of his country in India, for further necessary actions as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(1) A relative living abroad, who intends to adopt a child from his relative in India shall obtain an order from the court and apply for no objection certificate from Authority, in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(2) The Authority shall on receipt of the order under sub-section (1) and the application from either the biological parents or from the adoptive parents, issue no objection certificate under intimation to the immigration authority of India and of the receiving country of the child.
(3) The adoptive parents shall, after receiving no objection certificate under sub-section
(2), receive the child from the biological parents and shall facilitate the contact of the adopted child with his siblings and biological parents from time to time.
(1) Before issuing an adoption order, the court shall satisfy itself that ––
(a) the adoption is for the welfare of the child; (b) due consideration is given to the wishes of the child having regard to the age and understanding of the child; and (c) that neither the prospective adoptive parents has given or agreed to give nor the specialised adoption agency or the parent or guardian of the child in case of relative adoption has received or agreed to receive any payment or reward in consideration of the adoption, except as permitted under the adoption regulations framed by the Authority towards the adoption fees or service charge or child care corpus.
(2) The adoption proceedings shall be held in camera and the case shall be disposed of by the court within a period of two months from the date of filing.
(1) The documentation and other procedural requirements, not expressly provided in this Act with regard to the adoption of an orphan, abandoned and surrendered child by Indian prospective adoptive parents living in India, or by non-resident Indian or overseas citizen of India or person of Indian origin or foreigner prospective adoptive parents, shall be as per the adoption regulations framed by the Authority.
(2) The specialized adoption agency shall ensure that the adoption case of prospective adoptive parents is disposed of within four months from the date of receipt of application and the authorized foreign adoption agency, Authority and State Agency shall track the progress of the adoption case and intervene wherever necessary, so as to ensure that the time line is adhered to.
A child in respect of whom an adoption order is issued by the court, shall become the child of the adoptive parents, and the adoptive parents shall become the parents of the child as if the child had been born to the adoptive parents, for all purposes, including intestacy, with effect from the date on which the adoption order takes effect, and on and from such date all the ties of the child in the family of his or her birth shall stand severed and replaced by those created by the adoption order in the adoptive family:
Provided that any property which has vested in the adopted child immediately before the date on which the adoption order takes effect shall continue to vest in the adopted child subject to the obligations, if any, attached to the ownership of such property including the obligations, if any, to maintain the relatives in the biological family.
Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, information regarding all adoption orders issued by the concerned courts, shall be forwarded to Authority on monthly basis in the manner as provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority, so as to enable Authority to maintain the data on adoption.
(1) The State Government shall recognize one or more institutions or organizations in each district as a Specialized Adoption Agency, in such manner as may be provided in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority, for the rehabilitation of orphan, abandoned or surrendered children, through adoption and non-institutional care.
(2) The State Agency shall furnish the name, address and contact details of the Specialized Adoption Agencies along with copies of certificate or letter of recognition or renewal to Authority, as soon as the recognition or renewal is granted to such agencies.
(3) The State Government shall get every Specialised Adoption Agency inspected at least once in a year and take necessary remedial measures, if required.
(4) In case any Specialized Adoption Agency is in default in taking necessary steps on its part as provided in this Act or in the adoption regulations framed by the Authority, for getting an orphan or abandoned or surrendered child legally free for adoption from the Committee or in completing the home study report of the prospective adoptive parents or in obtaining adoption order from the court within the stipulated time, such Specialized Adoption Agency shall be punishable with a fine which may extend up to fifty thousand rupees and in case of repeated default, the recognition of the Specialized Adoption Agency shall be withdrawn by the State Government.
(1) All the institutions registered under this Act, which may not have been recognized as Specialized Adoption Agencies, shall also ensure that all orphan or abandoned or surrendered children under their care are reported, produced and declared legally free for adoption, by the Committee as per the provisions of section 38.
(2) All institutions referred to in sub-section (1) shall develop formal linkages with nearby Specialized Adoption Agency and shall furnish details of the children declared legally free for adoption to that Specialized Adoption Agency along with all relevant records in the manner as may be prescribed, for the placement of such children in adoption.
(3) If any such institution contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), it shall be liable to fine of fifty thousand rupees for each instance to be imposed by the registering authority and it may also attract de-recognition in the event of persistent flouting of such provisions.
(1) The State Government shall set up a State Adoption Resource Agency for dealing with adoptions and related matters in the State under the guidance of Authority.
(2) The State Agency, wherever already exists, shall be deemed to be set up under this ,
The Central Adoption Resource Agency existing before the commencement of this Act, shall be deemed to have been constituted as the Central Adoption Resource Authority under this Act to perform the following functions, namely:—
(a) to promote in-country adoptions and to facilitate inter-State adoptions in co-ordination with State Agency;
(b) to regulate inter-country adoptions;
(c) to frame regulations on adoption and related matters from time to time as may be necessary;
(d) to carry out the functions of the Central Authority under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in respect of Inter-country Adoption;
(e) any other function as may be prescribed.
(1) The Authority shall have a Steering Committee with following members :
(a) Secretary, Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India, who shall be the Chairperson—ex officio;
(b) Joint Secretary, Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India, dealing with Authority—ex officio;
(c) Joint Secretary, Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India, dealing with Finance—ex officio;
(d) one State Adoption Resource Agency and two Specialized Adoption Agencies;
(e) one adoptive parent and one adoptee;
(f) one advocate or a professor having at least ten years of experience in family law;
(g) Member-Secretary, who shall also be Chief Executive Officer of the organization.
(2) Criteria for the selection or nomination of the Members mentioned at (d) to (f), their tenure as well as the terms and conditions of their appointment shall be such as may be prescribed.
(3) The Steering Committee shall have the following functions, namely:—
(a) to oversee the functioning of Authority and review its working from time to time so that it operates in most effective manner;
(b) to approve the annual budget, annual accounts and audit reports as well as the action plan and annual report of Authority;
(c) to adopt the recruitment rules, service rules, financial rules of Authority as well as the other regulations for the exercise of the administrative and programmatic powers within the organization, with the prior approval of the Central Government;
(d) any other function that may be vested with it by the Central Government from time to time.
(4) The Steering Committee shall meet once in a month in the manner as may be prescribed.
(5) The Authority shall function from its headquarter and through its regional offices as may be set up as per its functional necessity.
(1)For the efficient performance of its functions,Authority shall have the following powers, namely:—
(a) to issue instructions to any Specialized Adoption Agency or a Children Home or any child care institution housing any orphan, abandoned or surrendered child, any State Agency or any authorized foreign adoption agency and such directions shall be complied by such agencies;
(b) recommending to the concerned Government or Authority to take appropriate action against any official or functionary or institution under its administrative control, in case of persistent non-compliance of the instructions issued by it;
(c) forwarding any case of persistent non-compliance of its instructions by any official or functionary or institution to a Magistrate having jurisdiction to try the same and the Magistrate to whom any such case is forwarded shall proceed to hear the same as if the case has been forwarded to him under section 346 of the Code of CriminalProcedure,1973;
(d) any other power that may be vested with it by the Central Government.
(2) In case of any difference of opinion in an adoption case, including the eligibility of prospective adoptive parents or of a child to be adopted, the decision of Authority shall prevail.
(1) The Authority shall submit an annual report to the Central Government in such manner as may be prescribed.
(2) The Central Government shall cause the annual report of Authority to be laid before each House of Parliament.
(1) The Central Government shall, after due appropriation made by Parliament by law in this behalf, pay to the Authority by way of grants such sums of money as the Central Government may think fit for being utilized for performing the functions of Authority under this Act.
(2) The Authority may spend such sums of money as it thinks fit for performing the functions, as prescribed under this Act, and such sums shall be treated as expenditure payable out of the grants referred to in sub-section (1).
(1) The Authority shall maintain proper accounts and other relevant records and prepare an annual statement of accounts in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
(2) The accounts of Authority shall be audited by the Comptroller and Auditor- General at such intervals as may be specified by him and any expenditure incurred in connection with such audit shall be payable by the Authority to the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
(3) The Comptroller and Auditor-General and any person appointed by him in connection with the audit of the accounts of the Authority under this Act shall, have the same rights and privileges and the Authority in connection with the audit of Government accounts and, in particular, shall have the right to demand the production of books, accounts, connected vouchers and other documents and papers and to inspect any of the offices of Authority.
(4) The accounts of the Authority as certified by the Comptroller and Auditor-General or any other person appointed by him in this behalf, together with the audit report thereon shall be forwarded annually to the Central Government by the Authority.
(5) The Central Government shall cause the audit report to be laid, as soon as may be after it is received, before each House of Parliament.
The Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses Act (POCSO Act) 2012 was formulated in order to effectively address sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses Act, 2012 received the President’s assent on 19th June 2012 and was notified in the Gazette of India on 20th June, 2012.
The Act defines a child as any person below eighteen years of age. It defines different forms of sexual abuse, including penetrative and non-penetrative assault, as well as sexual harassment and pornography. It deems a sexual assault to be “aggravated” under certain circumstances, such as when the abused child is mentally ill or when the abuse is committed by a person in a position of trust or authority like a family member, police officer, teacher, or doctor. The Act also casts the police in the role of child protectors during the investigative process. Thus, the police personnel receiving a report of sexual abuse of a child are given the responsibility of making urgent arrangements for the care and protection of the child, such as obtaining emergency medical treatment for the child and placing the child in a shelter home, and bringing the matter in front of the CWC, should the need arise.
The Act further makes provisions for avoiding the re-victimisation of the child at the hands of the judicial system. It provides for special courts that conduct the trial in-camera and without revealing the identity of the child, in a manner that is as child-friendly as possible. Hence, the child may have a parent or other trusted person present at the time of testifying and can call for assistance from an interpreter, special educator, or other professional while giving evidence. Above all, the Act stipulates that a case of child sexual abuse must be disposed of within one year from the date the offense is reported.
The Act also provides for mandatory reporting of sexual offenses. This casts a legal duty upon a person who has knowledge that a child has been sexually abused to report the offense; if he fails to do so, he may be punished with six months’ imprisonment and/ or a fine.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations. Legislation across the world prohibit child labour. These laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, certain categories of work such as those by Amish children, some forms of child work common among indigenous American children, and others.
Child labour has existed to varying extents, through most of history. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many children aged 5–14 from poorer families still worked in Europe, the United States and various colonies of European powers. These children mainly worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories, mining and in services such as news boys. Some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours. With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates of child labour fell.
In developing countries, with high poverty and poor schooling opportunities, child labour is still prevalent. In 2010, sub-saharan Africa had the highest incidence rates of child labour, with several African nations witnessing over 50 percent of children aged 5–14 working. Worldwide agriculture is the largest employer of child labour. Vast majority of child labour is found in rural settings and informal urban economy; children are predominantly employed by their parents, rather than factories. Poverty and lack of schools are considered as the primary cause of child labour.
Globally the incidence of child labour decreased from 25% to 10% between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank. Nevertheless, the total number of child labourers remains high, with UNICEF and ILO acknowledging an estimated 168 million children aged 5–17 worldwide, were involved in child labour in 2013.